According to Wikipedia, citizens of Argentina can/must have biometric passports [doesn't imply retaining biometric information].
Accroding to the US Library of Congress, biometric data collected for production of passports is also retained and may be used by law enforcement agencies in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, France, Israel, New Zealand, Ukraine, and the USA.
This may — of course — gradually create creeping de-facto databases of a large part of the population (citizens who travel).
According to wikipedia, Argentina has a compulsory identity card.
A law enacted during the military dictatorship in Argentina forced all individuals to obtain a government-mandated ID. The country has now adopted a mandatory National ID with biometric data such as fingerprints and digitized facial photographs.