According to Wikipedia, citizens of Australia can/must have biometric passports [doesn't imply retaining biometric information].
Accroding to the US Library of Congress, biometric data collected for production of passports is also retained and may be used by law enforcement agencies in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, France, Israel, New Zealand, Ukraine, and the USA.
This may — of course — gradually create creeping de-facto databases of a large part of the population (citizens who travel).
According to wikipedia, Australia doesn't have a national identity card.
the citizens of many countries have successfully opposed biometric national ID schemes including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
The "foreign fighters" bill means there will be a major expansion of facial recognition imaging of Australians passing through international airports in a crackdown on passport fraud that could eventually apply to a wide range of biometric data – which could be shared with other government agencies.